9 Different Ways You Can Break Your Bones and How to Treat Them

download (11)A fracture means that one or more of your bones have been broken due to an impact with more force or pressure than your bones can support.

Fractures can be open or closed. Open fractures occur when the ends of a broken bone break the skin and are exposed. Closed fractures are also known as simple fractures, and happen when the bone does not break the skin.

Fractures can also be classified by the way the bone breaks:

  • Greenstick fracture: an incomplete fracture in which the bone only breaks on one side, while the other side is merely bent.
  • Torus fracture: an incomplete fracture where the bone is broken on one side and this causes a bump on the other side.
  • Non-displaced fracture: when a bone breaks into even pieces that can be aligned in place afterwards.
  • Displaced fracture: when a bone breaks into pieces that cannot be aligned.
  • Hairline fracture: as the name suggests, this fracture occurs when the bone is broken in a thin crack.
  • Single fracture: when the bone only breaks in one place.
  • Compression fracture: when the bone is crushed.
  • Comminuted fracture: when the bone is crushed or broken in three or more pieces.
  • Segmental fracture: when the bone breaks in two places, leaving a piece of bone unattached.

Regardless of the type of bone fracture, the following symptoms are usually present:

  • Swelling, bruising, or bleeding.
  • Intense pain.
  • Inability or limited ability to move the affected area.
  • Numbness or tingling over the affected area.

What To Do When Someone Breaks a Bone

Immediate medical attention is required for any person who has just suffered from a bone fracture. Call 911 or transport the person to the nearest hospital for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Some of the immediate steps you can take when someone suffers from a broken bone are:

· If the person has suffered major trauma or injury and they are unresponsive or not breathing, begin CPR and call 911.

  • Do not move the person unless absolutely necessary.
  • If there is any bleeding, apply pressure to the wound with a clean cloth to stop the bleeding.
  • Immobilize the broken limb but do not try to realign and push the bone back into place.
  • If there is swelling, wrap an ice pack in a piece of cloth and apply to the affected area to reduce swelling and relieve pain.
  • If the person feels faint or is having trouble breathing, ask them to lie down and elevate the legs in order to treat for shock.

What to Do to Prevent Bone Fractures

Nobody wants to go through the pain and discomfort that come with a broken bone. In addition to taking precautions when practicing activities that put you at risk of bone fractures, such as driving, practicing sports, etc. these are some other measures you can take to prevent breaking one or more bones:

    • Meeting your required daily intake of calcium: Calcium is needed to maintain healthy and strong bones. It is recommended that men and women under 50 intake 1,000 mg of calcium every day, while people over 50 should increase their calcium intake to 1,200 mg every day.


    • Meeting your required daily intake of vitamin D: Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. The recommended amount of vitamin D for people under 70 years of age is 0.015 mg (or 15mcg). People over 70 should increase their intake of vitamin D to 0.020 mg (or 20mcg).


  • Reduce sodium consumption: The more sodium a person consumes, the more calcium they need in order to excrete urine. Maintain your sodium consumption low so that you can retain the calcium you need for your bones.

Breaking bones can be very painful, so make sure you take the steps necessary to prevent this from happening. However, no one is immune to accidents, so if you or someone you know ever suffers from a broken bone, be sure to look for the symptoms mentioned in this article, follow the instructions provided, and get medical attention as soon as possible.


Key Clinical Research Sites in South America

download (10)There are many countries in South America that are growing in popularity as ideal areas for medical companies to conduct clinical trials. The reason for the increasing demand is due to a variety of factors, ranging from higher patient retention rates to the interesting disease profile of populations in the region.

South America also benefits from having vast populations, making them an exceptional source of patients that can be recruited to participate in trials. With these attractive benefits in mind, here are a few of the key clinical research sites in South America that pharmaceutical companies around the world are choosing to carry out their studies in.

Some of the major countries that are popular for clinical research trials are Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, all ideal due to their large and dense urban populations. Pharmaceutical companies choosing to outsource their clinical trials to sites in South America may choose either one of these countries or several of them in a multi-centred approach.

Up-and-coming countries that are proving in demand for clinical research trials are other Latin American nations Ecuador, Peru and Chile. These areas are of increasing interest as they offer large populations of otherwise trial-naïve participants, which can mean both a higher recruitment and retention rate.

One of the other key factors that makes South America such a popular place to conduct clinical trials is the fact that the entire region only speaks two first languages: Spanish and Portuguese. This means that it is very simple to effectively run a recruitment and research campaign that is applicable to all nations with minimal cost and administrative difficulty caused by language barriers.

Often, pharmaceutical companies will often take this one step further and only recruit from countries that speak one language – for example, Spanish – choosing a multi-centred approach featuring sites in South America in countries like Ecuador, Mexico, Argentina and Peru, for example.

The most productive sites in South America are found in cities across the region. The continent is quite distinct in the fact it boasts the extremely large urban populations not found in regions such as Europe, for example, whose urban areas fail to offer the same sheer number of potential participants as in Latin America.

Cities and towns are generally extremely populated with little suburban life, with only a few hospitals available to treat patients. This is another reason why clinical trial sites in South America flourish, as they offer a genuine form of alternative treatment for burgeoning city populations.

The area is also becoming an increasingly viable option for trials as many countries are becoming even easier to establish sites in. South America in general offers a mixed bag of regulatory requirements for carrying out clinical trials. Governments in countries such as Argentina and Brazil can take several months to approve clinical trials, although steps are being taken to improve this.

Rapidly-developing nations such as Ecuador and Peru are generally a lot quicker to approve medical studies, with less lengthy wait times than Brazil, Argentina and Mexico. Due to the fact that there are an increasing number of high quality sites and quick approval times, clinical research in these smaller countries is rapidly expanding.

These are some of the key areas for clinical research sites in South America. The more-established countries of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico still hold immense value for pharmaceutical companies looking to carry out trials of their drugs; that said, there are some new players on the scene of interest to pharmaceutical companies around the globe.

The less-established countries of Ecuador, Peru and Chile offer more trial-naïve populations, fast approval times and good quality sites, making them an increasingly attractive option for medical studies. In all cases, urban areas throughout the entire region offer a huge number of benefits to both the clinical research and the companies commissioning it.


Why Medical Waste Management Should Be At The Top Of Your Priority List

download (8)There is no doubt that medical care is vital for life, but the waste generated from medical activities represents a real problem for people and the world around us. If the waste generated in health care facilities is not handled properly, it causes a direct health impact on society, health care workers, and the environment.

Medical waste includes treated and untreated special waste from health care-related facilities that is comprised of animal waste, microbiological waste, pathological waste, animal blood, human blood, human body fluids, etc.

Every day a large amount of possibly infectious and hazardous waste is generated in the health care hospitals and facilities around the world. This requires specific treatment and management before being disposed of.

And when I say medical waste management requires particular attention, I mean required by law. Specific laws may be different across states and countries, but the basic understanding cannot be mistaken.

To properly dispose of waste, an entity must have a waste management license to ensure federal regulations are being adhered to. This requirement also ensures a waste disposal company is not participating in activities concerning waste disposal that have a negative or harmful impact on the environment or society.

Waste management companies are not permitted to transfer waste to another entity that is not properly authorized to receive it. Violation of this regulation is considered a criminal offense and offenders will be charged accordingly.

Householders are considered exempt from this law where disposal of household trash is concerned.

Why is Medical Waste Management Important?

There are many reasons why it’s important to ensure that medical waste is managed properly. Below I explain a few of them.

If sharps are not disposed of properly it may lead to infection amongst hospital personnel.

If infection control practices are not implemented and strictly enforced then patients and visitors may contract a hospital-acquired infection or HAI. People admitted to the hospital are not the only ones susceptible to infection because waste handlers and scavengers alike can also experience contamination from viruses and bacteria in hospitals. The same is true for people living in the vicinity.

Some unscrupulous businesses may repack and sell the “disposable” material, without even giving it a wash. Similarly, drugs which have been disposed of can be repacked and re-sold.


HACCP Certification – Why Is It Important?

download (7)If you are a citizen of the USA, then recently you must be hearing about the HACCP certification a lot in the television, radio and so on and you must be wondering as to why you are being made aware of it. By this time we can bet that you must be craving to know why you should check this HACCP certification. Well we are going to talk to you regarding the same so that the next time you are buying something to eat you know that you have bought the correct thing.

How HACCP certification helps?

It helps in a number of ways and those are being listed as follows:

· Firstly, it helps you to know what kind of food you are buying and whether it is perfectly safe or not. Only when you see that the product has a certification of HACCP then only you can know that you are buying the right kind of product. Thus with this certification, shopping of food products becomes far easy than it formerly used to be. So no tension while choosing food products.

· It gives product ratings to the product that it certifies so that you can choose which the better product is. Yes it is true that the certified products are a bit costly but then nothing is costlier than your life isn’t it? So it is for your benefit that the HACCP certification should be checked.

· Thirdly, the certification is given to a product only after intricate scrutiny which means that the product with the certification is bound to be flawless. It falls under the HACCP principles so that by in-taking food certified by this group no one should get ill or have any sort of uneasiness in the body. So the next time you move out to buy food packets just check whether the certification is present or not and pick the one which has it.

It is again important to check the certification because according to a recent survey that had taken place, it was seen that people who did not buy food according to the certification suffered from severe ailments like gastroenteritis and so on as because the food they took were not checked properly. But when asked to the people who are very careful in picking up food, they said that their rate of falling ill had lessened day by day as they took the certified foods. Be it a petty thing as a pickle or anything big such as canned food, do check it twice before buying as because we buy and have food to become healthy and not to fall sick isn’t it?